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Diabetes Complications

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People with diabetes are prone to risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications that tend to reduce life expectancy, cause significant morbidity, and diminish the quality of life. Complications may affect various systems of your body

Diabetic complications related to different parts of the body are as follows:

  • Diabetes and kidneys (Diabetic nephropathy): Diabetic nephropathy is a disease related to kidneys, where high levels of blood glucose make the kidneys filter blood more often. Thus, kidneys get damaged because of over filtration of blood.

  • Diabetes and eyes (Diabetic retinopathy or opthalmopathy): Diabetic retinopathy is a disease related to eyes, caused due to the damage of retinal blood vessels by raised blood glucose levels.

  • Diabetes and nerves (Diabetic neuropathy): Diabetic neuropathy is a disease related to nerves, where high level of blood glucose damages the nerves of the body.

  • Diabetes and feet (Diabetic foot): Diabetic foot is due to poor supply of blood to the nerves in foot leading to loss of sensation. This leads to formation of ulcers or sores in the feet of diabetic sufferers. Moreover, these ulcers may become infected which may require foot amputations (surgical removal of foot).

  • Diabetes and heart (Cardiovascular diabetes): Cardiovascular diabetes occurs due to high lipid levels which may put diabetic people at risk for heart diseases, heart attack and stroke.

  • Bacterial/fungal infections: Often diabetics are prone to bacterial and fungal infections like styes and boils, ringworm, athlete’s foot and vaginal infections.

  • Ketoacidosis: Accumulation of ketone bodies resulting from the break down of fats in the body is called as Ketoacidosis. This breakdown occurs to compensate for the unavailability of energy from glucose due to lack of insulin. It is mainly seen among type I diabetic people. Ketone levels in the blood rises and appear in the urine. It develops gradually and may be suspected when severe vomiting occurs. It may become life-threatening condition requiring emergency treatment.

  • Lactic acidosis: During the utilization of glucose for the production of energy, lactic acid is produced by the cell and thus lactic acid accumulates in the body resulting in lactic acidosis. It a rare condition and mainly affects people with type 2 diabetes.

  • Diabetic coma: It is a severe emergency condition in which a person becomes unconscious due to too low or too high blood glucose levels. As the symptoms are very similar in both the cases, it is difficult to tell whether it is caused due to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis. Type I diabetic people are prone to diabetic coma.

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